By Ofelia Zepeda
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Extra resources for A Papago Grammar
8. I am crying. You are laughing. They were working. We are running. She was sleeping. He is walking. You (pi) were talking. We were playing. B. Translate the following questions into Papago: 1. Are you working? 2. Were they playing? 3. Is he speaking? 4. Are you (pi) crying? 5. Was he sleeping? 6. Is it walking? 7. Were they running? 8. Is the dog crying? C. Some of the sentences below contain errors and some are correct. For each of the following sentences indicate whether the sen- SUBJECT PRONOUNS A N D IMPERFECTIVE AUXILIARY 23 tence is correct or incorrect; and if it is incorrect, indicate what the error is.
Hugidan a. 'An ki: hugidan b. 'An Husi hugidan c. 'An kawyu hugidan next next next next front front front front of (a person) of Joe of Mary of John toward toward Tucson toward Mary toward John to to the house to Joe to the horse SPECIFIERS AS INDICATORS OF DIRECTION Notice that the postpositional phrases above are given with one of three different specifiers — 'ab, 'am, or 'an. Each of these three specifiers indicates a different position, relative to the speaker, of the object of the postposition.
A. Hegai 'o tako şoak. b. Tako 'o şoak hegai. c. Tako 'o şoak. He/she was crying yesterday. 16. a. Hegam 'o s-hottam hihim. b. S-hottam 'o hihim hegam. c. S-hottam 'o hihim. They are /were walking quickly. 17. a. 'A:pim 'am si s-kaidam nenok. b. Si 'am s-kaidam nenok 'a:pim. c. Si 'am s-kaidam nenok. 18. a. Hegam 'o s-kaidam şoan. b. S-kaidam 'o şoan hegam. c. S-kaidam 'o soan. You (pi) are/were speaking very loudly. They are /were crying loudly. INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES Remember that the questions in Papago have the question marker (QM) n-, added to the auxiliary.