By A. B. Zahlan
Taking an historic point of view, this publication outlines the evolution of the Arab development undefined, reading the purchase, accumulation and institutionalization of expertise by way of Arab consulting and contracting organisations. The examine is ready for the overseas Labour Office.
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Extra info for Acquiring Technological Capacity: A Study of Arab Consulting and Contracting Firms
Similarly, inadequate public policies have failed to promote joint venturing and subcontracting with Arab firms in the regional activities of international companies. Yet, as we shall show in some of the case studies, there has been considerable collaboration between Arab and foreign contractors. In fact foreign organisations have been a major channel for technology transfer. Firms such as Bechtel, IPC and The Arabian American Oil Company (ARAMCO), and Soviet participation in large-scale projects, have been a significant source of technological know-how.
8:1 ratio. 4 It is very likely that both the improvement in construction technology and the availability of local manpower products and services contributed to lower unit costs. If so, it is likely that expenditure, if measured by what was constructed, did not register a decline but rather an increase. These estimates give a good idea of the scale of the Arab construction industry. The dynamics of the industry are also clear: between 1972 and 1980 there was a dramatic and rapid expansion from a fairly low level of activity ( about $5 billion annual expenditure) to a high level (about $120 billion annual expenditure).
These we shall refer to as pan-Arab firms. A few Arab firms are international in the sense that they have successfully penetrated non-Arab markets. National, panArab and international firms operate in the market of each Arab State. These firms compete and/or collaborate to secure a share of the market. The process of technology acquisition is thus taking place in a highly competitive market. The various national groups benefit from distinctive types of incentives and support from their home countries.