Download Advances in Cryogenic Engineering: Proceedings of the 1956 by W. E. Gifford (auth.), K. D. Timmerhaus (eds.) PDF

By W. E. Gifford (auth.), K. D. Timmerhaus (eds.)

The nationwide Bureau of criteria Boulder Laboratories was once on September 5-7, 1956 back host to a countrywide convention on cryogenic engineering. Supported financially by way of a number of the best business businesses at present lively during this swiftly increasing box, the convention, moment of its sort, attracted greater than four hundred scientists and engineers from all components of the realm. This attendance was once facts of the current curiosity and development in cryogenic engineering, a box which has as but no longer discovered a passable position in the bounds of present expert societies. In all yet instances the complaints include the precis or complete textual content of the paper awarded on the confer­ ence. Forty-nine papers have been provided at seven separate classes. those classes have been divided into the next common subject matters: Cryogenic procedures Cryogenic apparatus Cryogenic houses Cryogenic functions Bubble Chambers The department every so often needed to be slightly arbitrary considering the fact that a number of papers might have been categorized below multiple normal subject. To make the court cases extra invaluable to the reader, an try out was once made to checklist the final dialogue which each one paper. regrettably, even if, the recording units weren't delicate sufficient for transparent replica. The discussions, consequently, haven't been integrated within the continue­ ings.

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Extra info for Advances in Cryogenic Engineering: Proceedings of the 1956 Cryogenic Engineering Conference National Bureau of Standards Boulder, Colorado September 5–7 1956

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This figure shows the effect of a radical change in weir height by comparing efficiencies obtained when using a 3/16 inch and a 2 inch weir height. A higher efficiency is to be expected with the larger weir height since contact qme between liquid and vapor is increased. Values at high throughputs for the 2 inch weir are not too well established because the liquid level was too close to the sample tap and these have therefore been dotted in. These curves indicate, however, that the increase in efficiency to be gained from using a high weir is not large enough to offset the disadvantages of the large liquid holdup which would occur in a full scale column.

Without such an absolute standard or yardstick, the attempts of engineers to improve processes would be purely shots in the dark with no goal at which to aim. With the reversible process as our standard, we know at once whether an actual process is already highly efficient or whether it is very inefficient and therefore capable of considerable improvement. Causes of irreversibility in the separation of multicomponent mixtures have often been described, and the concept of "minimum theoretical reflux" expresses the will to approach, at least locally, the conditions of reversibility.

50- By Ix = L Figure 4. >- ~ .... 16 <1> E '+- o (J) <1> ~ u c 12 E '+- 0 16 equation (8) 1,/30-'-' ! - . :::T Q. c u c J I 0= data 20 12 16 minu tes ( a) >.... I-- 0- O/':'equation (8) / /' 0 I / 12 e, / / v/ / / 0 ~. 40 % N2 in He Figure 5. +r )(R 1 + r 1 0 0 = mass 4 R4 r 0 i flow at x Kc + 4 1 ro = 0, (8) lbs. / sec. = gas density at mean temperature of the affected zone = friction factor f r g o = deposit profile radius at x = = OJ ft.

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